“In their forward march we notice that among the now dispersed ranks are individuals reduced to 乒 [pīng], and 乓 [pāng], onomatopoeia for “crack” and “bang.” The perception of forward movement of the ordered ranks of 兵 we get from their dispersal and the selective “deforming” of the original, “intact,” characters. The final rows repeat lines of the character 丘 [qiū] “mound,” having the context-dependent metaphoric meaning of “grave” (in the specific context of this poem). They are now ordered again, in formation, in perfect rows. In the Appendix, “Travelling Between Languages,” pointed reference is made to Garri Bardin’s “Konflikt” (1983) as a precursor: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZDCjIhGJe0. Even though Chen had no knowledge of the work until after his own reading and animation of “War Symphony, he now takes “War Symphony” as a “translation” (re-creation) of the Bardin film, the Russian animator being the “original” author, in this sense: “…the real author of this poem” (pp. 238—239). The translation/re-creation, in this instance, is one that involves crossing modality.”

–[Norbert Francis, from his review of Edge of the Island, a collection of concrete and experimental poetry by Chen Li, https://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/004925 ]