It’s possible to look back on Civilization with a sigh of loss, despite the fact that Civilization IS its “discontents” (as Charles Fourier might have put it) if only because what comes after Civilization invariably proves so much worse.  Abdullah Öcalan has developed Fourier’s critique into a devastating attack of great profundity; no contemporary thinker despises Civilization and its betrayal of humanity more than Öcalan.  And yet as a subtle dialectician he sees the “other hand” as well – that even imperial Civilization had its good points compared to its wretched aftermath.  As he says in this Manifesto (p. 179), Greco-Roman culture represents the “apogee” of “material civilization”; “it was also the last of its kind. (Finding anything today comparable to [what] they attained is quite difficult – capitalist industrialism is not a civilization but a disease attacking civilization.)”

A review of Abdulla Öcalan, Manifesto for a Democratic Civilization Vol. 1: Civilization in the Age of Masked Gods and Disguised Kings.